2023年未来就业报告
已发布: 30 四月 2023

User Guide

How to read the economy, industry, region and skill profiles

Economy, Industry, Region and Skill Profiles present data findings through these respective lenses, with the aim of providing specific practical information to decision-makers and experts in academia, business, government and civil society. Complementing the cross-industry and cross-economy analysis of results in the report, this section provides deeper granularity for given industries and economies through dedicated Profiles. Economy, Region, and Industry Profiles provide interested companies and policy-makers with the opportunity to benchmark their organization against the range of expectations prevalent in their industry, economy and/or region, whereas the Skill Profiles provide deeper insights for organizations’ reskilling, upskilling and training initiatives, and inspiration for workers seeking to develop or describe their skill sets. The User Guide provides an overview of the information contained in the various Profiles and their appropriate interpretation.

Economy, industry and region profiles

Global trends and their impact on job creation

This bar chart shows the effect on job creation of the global trends that have been identified by most respondents as driving the transformation of their organization. It is based on the responses to the question, “Regarding the macrotrends likely or highly likely to drive transformation in your organization, what is their expected impact on job creation in your organization?” of surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region, compared with the global average. Net effect is calculated by the share of respondents who view a trend as a net job creator minus the share of respondents who view a trend as a net job displacer.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Technologies and their impact on job creation

This bar chart shows the effect on job creation of the technologies that have been identified by most respondents as driving the transformation of their organization. It is based on the responses to the question, “Regarding the technologies likely or highly likely to be adopted in your organization, what is their expected impact on job creation in your organization?” of surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region, compared with the global average. Net effect is calculated by the share of respondents who view a technology as a net job creator, minus the share of respondents who view a technology as a net job displacer.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Churn in five years

This is the five-year structural labour-market churn of surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region. Labour-market churn refers to the pace of reallocation of workers and jobs. Structural churn does not take into account the natural churn of workers moving between jobs for personal reasons. For additional details on the calculation of this indicator, please refer to the Methodology section.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Top roles for industry transformation

This table provides an overview of the top roles for industry transformation from now until 2027. The list eports the roles that have been selected most often as growing, stable or declining in the next five years by surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region, compared with the global average. Net growth is calculated based on the respondent-reported role proportion in the organization now and in 2027.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Contextual indicators:

This section provides the reader with the latest available data from contextual indicators on an economy’s labour market.

Working-age population

The total working age population is displayed in the top right corner of the page. The working-age population is the number of people aged 25 and over. In addition to using a minimum age threshold, certain countries also apply a maximum age limit.

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed March 2023)

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT

Wage and salaried workers in sectors (millions)

World Economic Forum’s calculation based on ILO’s estimates of sectoral employment for 41 ISIC sectors and on the World Economic Forum’s Industry Taxonomy (see Appendix Table A1). Wage and salaried workers (employees) are those workers who hold the type of jobs defined as “paid employment jobs,” where the incumbents hold explicit (written or oral) or implicit employment contracts that give them a basic remuneration that is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.

Period: 2021

Source: World Economic Forum’s calculation based on ILO modelled estimates

Labour-force participation

The labour-force participation rate is the labour force as a percentage of the working-age population. The labour force is the sum of all persons of working age who are employed and those who are unemployed.

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed March 2023)

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT

Youth not in employment, education, or training (NEET)

This indicator refers to the proportion of youth who are not in employment and not in education or training (ILO modelled estimates). Youth not in education are those who were neither enrolled in school nor in a formal training program (e.g. vocational training).

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed March 2023)

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT

Unemployment

The unemployment rate is the number of persons who are unemployed as a percentage of the labour force (i.e. the employed plus the unemployed).

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed March 2023)

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT

Unemployment among workers with basic and advanced education

The unemployment rate is the number of persons who are unemployed as a percent of the labour force (i.e. the employed plus the unemployed). Data disaggregated by level of education is provided

on the highest level of education completed, classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed March 2023)

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT

National compliance with labour rights

This indicator seeks to measure the level of national compliance with fundamental labour rights (freedom of association and collective bargaining or FACB). It has a range from 0 to 10, with 0 being the best possible score (indicating higher levels of compliance with FACB rights) and 10 the worst (indicating lower levels of compliance with FACB rights).

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed March 2023)

Source:International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT

Vulnerable employment

Vulnerable employment (male and female) as a share of total employment). Vulnerable employment includes contributing family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment.

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed March 2023)

Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database. Estimates are based on data obtained from International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT.

Workers’ Rights

The ITUC Global Rights Index seeks to measure the level of protection of workers’ rights across 139 countries on a scale from 1-5. Workers’ rights are absent in countries with a rating of 5+ and violations occur on an irregular basis in countries with a rating of 1.

Period: 2022.

Source: International Trade Union Confederation, Workers’ Rights Index.

Country investment in mid-career training

Score computed based on the average response of companies operating in this country to the question “In your country, to what extent does government invest in mid-career reskilling and upskilling opportunities?” 1=Government does not invest in mid-career training, 7=Government invests in mid- career training.

Period: 2021–2022 weighted average

Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey

Ease of finding skilled employees in local labour market

Score computed based on the average response of companies operating in this country to the question “In your country, to what extent can companies find people with the skills required to fill their vacancies in the local labour market?” 1=Companies cannot easily find skilled employees, 7=Companies can easily find skilled employees.

Period: 2021–2022 weighted average

Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey

Fill vacancies by hiring foreign labour

Score computed based on the average response of companies operating in this country to the question, “In your country, to what extent can companies find people with the skills required to fill their vacancies by hiring foreign labour?” 1=Companies cannot fill vacancies by hiring foreign labour, 7=Companies can fill vacancies by hiring foreign labour.

Period: 2021–2022 weighted average

Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey

Human-machine frontier

This bar chart shows the share of tasks performed by humans and machines today and in 2027, based on responses to “Currently/In five years, what proportion of time spent doing the following tasks in your organization cannot be automated (that is, performed by machines and algorithms) and is thus spent by your human workforce performing the task?”.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Core skills

This bar and table estimate the relative importance of eight groups of skills for companies. It is based on responses by the companies that operate in the respective economy or region to the the question, “What are the core skills workers currently need to perform well in the key roles with a stable outlook?”, where respondents are able to select all the level-3 skills in the Global Skills Taxonomy that apply. The relative importance of each skills is calculated as a share of the total number of skills selected by each respondent, and averaged across all respondents. For example, a skills is assigned a share of 100% if it is the only one selected by a respondent, or 25% if it one of the four skills selected by the respondent.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Reskilling skill focus

This bar chart shows the share of surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region that selects a particular level-3 skill in the Global Skills Taxonomy, based on responses to the question, “Keeping in mind your current strategic direction, please select the skill clusters on which you are focusing your organization’s reskilling and upskilling efforts in the next five years”.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Skill stability

This is the average of estimates of surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region, based on responses to the question, “What proportion of the core skills required by your workforce will remain the same?”, compared with the global average.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Training funding

This table shows average proportion of training funding among surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region, based on responses to the question, “How will you fund the majority of your training, upskilling and reskilling efforts in your organization?”, compared with the global average.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Training type

This bar and table show the average proportion of training type among surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region, based on response to the question, “In your future reskilling and upskilling programmes, what proportion of training provision will come from?”, compared with the global average.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Talent outlook in 2027

This bar chart shows the share of respondents that operate in the respective economy or region who expect their talent availability when hiring, talent development of existing workforce, and talent retention of existing office to improve or worsen in five years, and their net effect of surveyed companies that operate in the respective economy or region, compared with the global average. It is based on the responses to the question, “How would you rate talent availability, development and retention in your organization in the next five years?”. Net effect is calculated by the share of respondents who expect their talent availability to improve or improve significantly, minus the share of respondents who expect their talent availability to worsen or worsen significantly.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Business practices to improve talent availability

This table shows the share of respondents who agree that the particular business practice has the greatest potential to increase the talent availability. This is based on responses to the question, “Which business practices have the greatest potential to increase the availability of talent to your organization in the next five years?”. Global averages are provided for comparison.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Key components of DEI programs to improve talent availability

This table shows the share of companies that operate in the respective economy, region or industry that have selected each component of DEI programmes among the ones with the greatest potential to improve talent availability.

This is the result of the question, “Which business practices have the greatest potential to increase the availability of talent to your organization in the next five years?”.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Share of companies with DEI programs

This is the share of surveyed companies with Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) programmes that operate in the respective economy or region, compared with the global average. It is based on the share of the respondents who do not select “My organization does not have a DEI programme” for the question, “What are likely to be the key components your workforce diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) programme priorities in the next five years?”.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Skill profile

Reskilling skill focus ranking

This is the aggregated ranking using the Borda method of rankings supplied by surveyed companies regarding their reskilling and upskilling priorities for 2023-2027, based on responses to the question, “Keeping in mind your current strategic direction, please select and rank the skill clusters on which you are focusing your organisation’s reskilling and upskilling efforts in the next five years”. As respondents selected and ranked different numbers of skill clusters, the Borda method aggregates results assigning to each skills cluster ranked by the respondent a score equal to the total number of skill clusters in the list (26) minus the rank assigned by the respondent. For example, a skill cluster ranked 7th by a respondent would receive a score equal to 19. Scores are then added together and final results used to rank all skills clusters.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Five-year trend

This line chart shows the evolution of the share of learning hours spent pursuing credentials in each level-3 skill in the Global Skills Taxonomy on Coursera’s online learning platform from 2017 to 2022.

Period: 2017-2022

Source: Coursera

Skill importance

This shows the share of surveyed companies for which the particular skill is a core skill for key roles with a stable outlook, based on responses to the question, “What are the core skills workers currently need to perform well in the key roles with a stable outlook?”.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Skill evolution

This shows the expected increase or decrease in use of a particular skill for the key roles that have a stable outlook in the organization. It is based on responses to the question, “For the key roles with a stable outlook, would you expect an increase or decrease in the use of the following skills?”. The net effect is calculated by the share of respondents who select a particular skill as exhibiting increasing or slightly increasing use, minus the share of respondents who select a particular skill as experiencing decreasing or slightly decreasing use.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Reskilling focus

This shows the share of companies for which the particular skill is a priority in their upskilling and reskilling programmes in the next five years, based on responses to the question, “Keeping in mind your current strategic direction, please select the skill clusters on which you are focusing your organization’s reskilling and upskilling efforts in the next five years”.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Jobs in focus

This table shows the top roles where survey respondents report the particular skill to be increasing in importance fastest, alongside the net growth at the role level in the next five years.

The top roles are based on the roles selected in response to the question, “Please provide examples of mass employment roles in your organization that are expected to have a stable employment outlook in the next five years”, joined by the share of skill evolution, based on responses to the question, “For the key roles with a stable outlook, would you expect an increase or decrease in the use of the following skills?”. Net growth is calculated based on the respondent-reported role proportion in the organization now and in 2027.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Time to skill

The median number of learning hours taken by learners to successfully complete credentials teaching this skill on the Coursera learning platform, as a function of the relative skill proficiency of the credential and the learner’s self-reported level of formal education, when it is known.

Period: 2022-2023

Source: Coursera

Strategically adjacent skills

Conditional probability that a company will prioritize workforce development in this skill, given that it will prioritizes workforce development in the skill named in the profile. The probability is calculated based on responses to the question, “Keeping in mind your current strategic direction, please select the skill clusters on which you are focusing your organization’s reskilling and upskilling efforts in the next five years”

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

Simultaneous skill acquisition

Conditional probability that a course on the Coursera learning platform teaches this skill given that it teaches the skill named in the profile.

Period: 2017-2022

Source: Coursera

Industry trends

This table shows variations between sectors in the reskilling focus, current importance and evolving importance of the named skill. Among the 27 industries accessible within the data, the top three and bottom three industries are visualised, according to the reskilling focus from 2023 to 2027.

Period: 2022

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey

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