MD, Harvard Medical School; Residency, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center; studied neuropharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health. Former: Neuroscience Researcher, Rockefeller University, New York; Assistant Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, focussing on AIDS research. 1991-97, Commissioner, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; implemented rigorous public health initiatives that tackled the city's most pressing crises head-on. 1997-2000, Assistant Secretary for Policy and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services. Since May 2009, Commissioner, US Food and Drug Administration; committed to strengthening programmes and policies that enable the agency to carry out its fundamental mission - to protect and promote public health; only the second woman ever to serve as Commissioner. Founding Vice-President, Biological Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, a foundation dedicated to reducing the threat to public safety from nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.