PhD, Cambridge University. 1970-95, career US Coast Guard Officer retiring with the rank of Captain; served in command of four Coast Guard ships including the polar icebreaker Polar Sea on Arctic & Antarctic expeditions. 2004-09, Chair, Arctic Council Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment and Vice-Chair, Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment Working Group. Distinguished Professor of Geography & Arctic Policy, University of Alaska Fairbanks; Senior Fellow, Institute of the North. Research Fellow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Faculty Member, US Coast Guard Academy and Naval Postgraduate School; Deputy Director, US Arctic Research Commission. Marine policy work on Arctic marine safety and environmental protection issues, and research on the Russian maritime Arctic, Arctic scenarios, climate change, and polar geopolitics. Member: Council on Foreign Relations; Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar Research.