Studies at the University of Dakar, University of Paris I and Institut d'Histoire des Relations Internationales Contemporaines (IHRIC); Master's in History and graduate degree in Political Science and International Relations. Formerly: researcher, CNRS, France; taught courses on third world politics, University of Paris I; technical consultant, European Development Fund, Mali. Founded Alliance for Democracy in Mali (ADEMA); from 1991, Secretary for African and International Relations; 1992, Deputy Director, ADEMA candidate Alpha Oumar Konaré's presidential campaign; 1992, named Senior Diplomatic Adviser and Spokesman by President Konaré; 1992, appointed Ambassador to Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Burkina Faso and Niger; 1993, appointed Minister of External Affairs, Malians Abroad and African Integration; 1994-2000, Prime Minister of Mali. 2001, founded a political party, Rally for Mali (RPM), leading it since then. 2002-07, President, National Assembly of Mali. Since 2013, President of Mali.