PhD in Economics, Pretoria University. 1984-90, taught Economics, Pretoria University, including 1986, Senior Lecturer. Formerly, in the banking industry. 1994, Chief Economist, Iscor; 1996, Business Units Manager, coated steel and flat steel products, then Head, Strategic Initiatives. 2004, joined Mittal Steel (now ArcelorMittal) as General Manager, responsible for Marketing Strategy; then Head, Commercial Research and Market Segmentation; 2006, Vice-President, Commercial Coordination, Marketing and Trade Policy, ArcelorMittal. Currently, Director-General, World Steel Association.Recipient, honorary medal, HSRC, for the advancement of Science.