Graduate, Monash University; Master of Economics and PhD in Japanese Economy, Australian National University; Doctor of Laws honoris causa (Monash University). Former Academic Researcher on Japanese Economy: Australian National University; Osaka University; Bank of Japan; Stanford University. Eight years with Lehman Brothers, initially as Chief Economist, Asia, then Global Chief Economist and Head of Economic Research. Four years with Nomura Securities in the role of Global Chief Economist and Global Head, Economic Research. Six years with S&P Global, most recenttly as Vice Chairman, having been Executive Vice President and Chief Economist and earlier Chief Economist and Head of Global Economics and Research, Standard & Poor's Ratings Services. He has also served for seven years as Non-Executive Director, ORIX Corporation. He is a member of the board of the Foreign Policy Association. a member of the Bretton Woods Committee, the Council on Foreign Relations and the Economic Club of New York, and is an author or editor of four books.