Degree, Mechanical Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia; Master's, Management Technology, Melbourne Business School, Australia; MBA, Monash University, Australia; Advanced Management Program, University of Pennsylvania, US. 1987, established own business. Board member of several Indonesian companies, including: President Commissioner and Chairman, Fajar Surya Wisesa; President Commissioner, Essar Dhananjaya; President Director, Bisma Narendra; Chairman, Ciptadana Sekuritas. Member, Engineering Council, Indonesian Institute of Engineers. Chairman, Agro Industry, Indonesia Chamber of Commerce and Industry.