DPhil, Oxford. 1979, Junior Fellow, Institute of World Economics and Politics; 1983, Research Fellow; 1987, Senior Research Fellow; 1986-88, Division Chief; 1998-09, Director. 2003-11, President, China Society of World Economy; 2004-06, Member, Monetary Policy Committee, People's Bank of China. Currently, Academician, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Member: Advisory Committee, National Planning, National Development and Reform Commission; Advisory Committee, Foreign Policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.